Provided by CCOHS/produit par le CCHST

                                          ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                          Original:  ENGLISH
                                          Distr.: LIMITED
                                          Date of issue:  February 1994



         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food and Agriculture               des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.


Primary use:           Insecticide
Secondary use:         
Chemical group:        Pyrethroid


1.1   COMMON NAME:  phenothrin (BSI, E-ISO);  phénothrine (F-ISO).

1.1.1  Identity

      d-Phenothrin is a mixture of four stereoisomers.  The technical 
      compound is a 20:80  cis:trans mix of both (1R) - (1S) - 
      configurations.  The (1R) - configurations have a greater 
      insecticidal activity than the corresponding (1S) - isomers.  d-
      Phenothrin, a preparation rich in (1R) - isomers, with a  cis:trans 
      ratio 20:80, has been marketed.  Data pertaining to this latter
      product will be designated d-phenothrin in this data sheet.  

      IUPAC chemical name:  3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS, 3RS;  1RS, 3SR)-2, 2-
      dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl) cyclopropanecarboxylate.  The 
      alternative nomenclature of (1RS)- cis ,  trans - has also been 
      used to designate the stereoisomers and will be used in this data 

      CAS chemical name:  Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-
      methyl-1-propenyl)-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester.

      CAS registry number:       26002-80-2 (racemic).

      RTECS registry number:     GZ 1975000 (racemic)
                                   GZ 2002000 (d-phenothrin)

      Molecular formula:         C23H26O3

      Molecular mass:            350.5

      Structural formula:  

      Synonyms and trade names: (1R)-phenothrin;  S-2539, Multicide
      concentrate F-2271, WellcideR. The (1R)- cis ,  trans  
      (d-phenothrin); isomers (20:80) are known as SumithrinR;  
      S-2539 ForteR;  Pesguard-A NS, Pesguard-A NS W, or Pesguard NS. 
      The (R) - isomers may also be designated (+) or d-;  
      the (S) - isomers as (-) or 1-. 

1.2   SYNOPSIS:  d-Phenothrin is a fast acting 
      insecticide, effective by contact and stomach action. It is rapidly
      metabolized and excreted by mammals and has low mammalian toxicity.
      Stable to storage in the dark;  relatively unstable to sunlight or 
      ultra violet irradiation, or in alkaline media. 


1.3.1  Physical characteristics:  d-Phenothrin is a yellow 
      to yellow-brown liquid, with a density of 1.061 g/cm3 (25 °C) and
      a refractive index of 1.5482.

1.3.2  Solubility:  Soluble in water (25 °C) 2 mg/L.  
      Soluble in organic solvents.

1.3.3  Stability:  d-Phenothrin is hydrolysed by
      alkalis but is stable in neutral or weakly acidic media.  Unstable
      in most solvents except methanol, ethyl cellosolve, o-cresol and
      dimethylsulfoxide.  Unstable to ultra violet irradiation and has a
      short residual life on pre-harvest application.  However, 
      d-phenothrin applied to wheat after harvest showed only slight
      degradation after six months storage at 30 °C.  When protected from 
      light no breakdown of d-phenothrin was observed after one year at 
      room temperature. 

1.3.4  Vapour pressure:  d-Phenothrin has a vapour
      pressure of 0.16 mPa at 20 °C. 


1.4.1  Common formulations:  Water and oil based aerosols, 
      liquid concentrates, emulsifiable concentrates, powders and dusts. 
      May be formulated with synergists or with other pyrethroid and non-
      pyrethroid insecticides. 

1.4.2  Pests controlled:  Controls most  Lepidoptera,
       Hemiptera (bed bugs),  Diptera (flies, gnats, and mosquitos), 
      cockroaches and lice. 

1.4.3  Use pattern:  d-Phenothrin is a non-systemic 
      insecticide which is effective by contact and as a stomach poison.
      Used for power-spray, mist, thermal fog, aerosol and ULV 
      applications.  The major use of d-phenothrin is in the control of
      nuisance insects and insects of importance to public health, and it
      is used to control human lice, in which case it is formulated as a 
      powder, shampoo, or lotion.  It is also used to protect grain. 

1.4.4  Unintended effects:  Toxic to fish and bees.


      It is used for the impregnation of bednets and for aircraft 

1.5.1  Common formulations:  As described in Section 1.4.1,
       but also formulated into powders, lotions and shampoos. 

1.5.2  Pests mainly controlled:  See section 1.4.2.

1.5.3  Use pattern:  Should be used according to 
      manufacturers' instructions on appearance of the pest. 


1.6.1  Common formulations:  See Sections 1.4.1 and 1.5.1
      for general formulation details.

1.6.2  Pests mainly controlled:  See Section 1.4.2.

1.6.3  Use pattern:  See sections 1.4.3 and 1.5.3.



2.1.1  Absorption route:  Absorbed from the gastrointestinal 
      tract and from the intact skin.  The dermal absorption rate differs
      between the (1R)- cis - and the (1R)- trans -isomers.  No data are
      available for the rate or extent of absorption from the lung. 

2.1.2  Mode of action:  d-Phenothrin is a neuropoison.
      The symptoms of poisoning are typical of those of pyrethroids without
      a cyano-substituent.  The proposed mechanism of action is due to the
      reversible binding of d-phenothrin to the sodium channels of the 
      neuronal membrane, in this way modifying the permeability of the 
      membrane to ions. 

2.1.3  Excretion products:  No published data are
      available for the combined isomers of d-phenothrin.  The metabolism
      of the individual (1R)- cis - and (1R)- trans - isomers has been
      investigated in the rat.  For both isomers an oral dose of 10 mg/kg
      b.w. was metabolized by hydrolysis, oxidation and conjugation and 96%
      of the administered dose was recovered in the urine and faeces within
      six days. 

      Following oral administration of the (1R)- trans - isomer, the urine
      was the major excretory route.  The isomer was extensively 
      metabolized to oxidative and conjugated derivatives of the hydrolysed 
      ester.  Oxidative and conjugated derivatives of the 
      (1R)- cis -isomer were also observed but hydrolysis of the ester 
      linkage was a minor metabolic pathway.  With this isomer the faeces
      was the major excretory route. 

      The metabolic profiles were similar following dermal application, 
      although the rates of excretion for each isomer showed some 
      differences between the two routes of administration. 

2.1.4  Toxicity, single dose:
      Oral LD50
         Rat      &gt10,000 mg/kg b.w. (without vehicle)
         Rat      > 5,000 mg/kg b.w.
         Mouse    > 5,000 mg/kg b.w. (in corn oil)

     Dermal LD50
        Rat       &gt10,000 mg/kg b.w.

     Intraperitoneal LD50
        Rat       > 5,000 mg/kg b.w.
        Mouse     > 5,000 mg/kg b.w.

     Intravenous LD50
        Rat        452-492 mg/kg b.w.
        Mouse      354-405 mg/kg b.w.

        Rat       &gt10,000 mg/kg b.w.

        Rat       &gt10,000 mg/kg b.w.

        Rat       &gt10,000 mg/kg b.w.

     Inhalation LC50 - 4 hour exposure (1R)-phenotrin
        Rat       &gt3.76 g/m3
        Mouse     &gt1.2  g m3 (1-2 µm particulates in kerosene)
      No sex difference in the toxicity was reported.  Following 
      intravenous administration symptoms of poisoning included 
      fibrillation, tremor, slow respiration, salivation, lacrimation, 
      ataxia and paralysis. The symptoms appeared 0.5 - 1 hour after 
      administration and diminished spontaneously. 

      No histopathological findings in the nervous system were observed 
      following four hour inhalation exposure of rats to 3.76 mg/L (see 
      Section 2.1.7). 

2.1.5  Toxicity, repeated dose:

      Inhalation:  Sprague Dawley rats or ddY mice exposed to
      concentrations of less than 0.21 mg (1R)-phenothrin/L, for 4 
      hours/day, five days/week for four weeks, showed no adverse effect on 
      behaviour, growth, clinical chemistry or organ histopathology. 
2.1.6  Dietary studies:

      Short term:  A 24 week dietary administration of up to 2500 mg 
      (1R)-phenothrin/kg diet to Sprague Dawley rats had no adverse 
      effect on growth, haematology, biochemical or histopathological 
      parameters.  Doses more than 5000 mg/kg diet produced increased 
      liver weights which were accompanied by histopathological changes of
      an unspecified nature.  Rats and dogs receiving (1R)-phenothrin in 
      the diet for six months showed no adverse effect at 1000 and 300
      mg/kg diet, respectively. 

      Long term:  A dose related increased incidence of alveolar
      amyloidosis was observed in Swiss mice receiving 300-3000 mg d-
      phenothrin/kg diet for 18 months.  The increased liver weights (both 
      sexes) and a decreased growth rate (males) were observed at 3000 
      mg/kg diet. 

      No compound-related adverse effects were observed in rats receiving 
      up to 2000 mg d-phenothrin/kg diet for two years.  At 6000 mg/kg 
      diet, growth was affected in both sexes.  Serum glutamate-pyruvate 
      transferase activity was increased in the males of this dose group. 

2.1.7  Supplementary studies of toxicity:

      Carcinogenicity:  No tumours attributable to d-phenothrin exposure
      were observed in Swiss mice following 18 months administration of up 
      to 3000 mg/kg diet, or in rats receiving less than 6000 mg/kg diet in 
      the long-term feeding studied described above. 

     Teratogenicity: No teratogenic effects were observed.  The NOELs for
      New Zealand white rabbits and mice were 30 and 3000 mg/kg b.w./day 

      Mutagenicity: Two oral doses of 1500 mg/kg b.w./day to male mice 
      did not induce mutation in a host-mediated assay with  Salmonella 
      typhimurium -G46.  Similar investigations with (1R)- trans 
      -phenothrin (250 mg/kg b.w./day) or (1R)- cis -phenothrin (90 mg/kg 
      b.w./day) were also negative. 

      No mutagenic potential was observed with or without metabolic 
      activation of d-phenothrin, or the individual isomers, in several 
      strains of  S. typhimurium  or  Escherichia coli .  d-Phenothrin
      did not induce mutations in  Bacillus subtilis .   In vivo  and
       in vitro  chromosomal aberration tests showed negative results. 

      Reproduction:  No significant changes in reproductive potential were 
      observed in a three generation reproduction study on Charles River 
      rats.  The NOEL was 2000 mg/kg diet. 

      Neurotoxicity:  d-Phenothrin at high doses, in common with
      pyrethroids of similar chemical structure, may induce ataxia. 

      Rats receiving oral doses of 5000 mg (1R)-phenothrin/kg b.w./day (as 
      SumithrinR) for five days showed evidence of poisoning, such as leg 
      weakness or ataxia, and some died.  In survivors three days after 
      cessation of exposure no clinical signs of poisoning were apparent.  
      No significant morphological changes were observed. 

      Other:  (1R) - phenothrin had no effect on a variety of  in vitro
      and  in vivo pharmacological parameters.  These tests included  
      hexabarbital sleeping times in mice, body temperature in rats, blood 
      pressure and heart rate in dogs, and the contractile activity of 
      various muscle preparation  in vitro .
2.1.8  Modifications of toxicity:  The geometric 
      isomers undergo different metabolic pathways (see Section 2.1.3). 
      The rapid hydrolysis of the  trans -isomers and the slower 
      oxidation of the  cis - isomers are similar to that observed with
      other pyrethroids.  Inhibition of the oxidative enzymes may increase
      the toxicity of the  cis  isomers. 


2.2.1  Absorption route:  No published data available but
      d-phenothrin may be absorbed from the skin, gastrointestinal tract or
      from the lungs. 
2.2.2  Dangerous doses:
      Single:    No published information available.
      Repeated:  No published information available.
2.2.3  Observations on occupationally exposed workers:
      No published information available. 

2.2.4  Observations on exposure of the general population:
      No published information available.  Manufacturers' instructions
      should be carefully followed to ensure that the general population
      is not exposed to undue amounts of d-phenothrin during agricultural,
      public health or domestic usage. 

2.2.5  Observations on volunteers:  In a special study, 
      d-phenothrin in a talc powder formulation with Span 80 as a 
      stabilizer was applied to the head and pubic hair of eight male 
      volunteers three times at intervals of 3 days, at a dose of 32 
      mg/man per administration (0.44 to 0.67 mg/kg body weight per day).
      The powder was washed off 1 hour after application.  There were no 
      significant abnormalities due to d-phenothrin in terms of dermal 
      irritation, clinical signs, or blood biochemical and haematological
      parameters.  The blood levels of d-phenothrin were below the 
      detection limit of 0.0006 mg/kg. 

2.2.6  Reported mishaps:  
      No published information available.


2.3.1      Fish:  Toxic to fish.

     LC50 - 48 hour
        Goldfish         0.25 - 0.5 mg/L
        Killifish               0.2 mg/L 

     LC50 - 96 hour
        Bluegill         0.018 mg/L (1R)-phenothrin
        Rainbow trout    0.017 mg/L (1R)-phenothrin

2.3.2  Birds:

     LD50 - Oral
        Bobwhite quail      > 2510 mg/kg b.w.

2.3.3  Other species: 
      Toxic to bees but no quantitative data are available.

  LC50 3 hour
       Daphonia pulex     > 50 mg/L



      [For definition of categories see the 'Introduction to Data Sheets']. 
      Liquid formulations > 25% - Category 4*
      All other formulations -  Category 5*

Based on WHO documented oral LD50 of &gt5000 mg/kg b.w.


      Formulations in category 4:  Should be transported and stored in
      clearly labelled, leak-proof containers well away from food or drink.
      The containers should be kept under lock and key, secure from access 
      by children and unauthorized personnel. 

      Formulations in category 5:  Should be transported and stored in
      clearly labelled, leak-proof containers, well away from food and
      drink and secure from access by children.
      Formulations in category 4:  Protective clothing (see section 4)
      should be worn when handling these formulations.  Adequate washing 
      facilities should be available in the immediate area.  Eating, 
      drinking and smoking should be prohibited during handling.  Hands and 
      face should be washed immediately after handling the formulation. 

      Formulations in category 5:  Facilities as required for the 
      handling of any chemical should be provided.  Hands and face should
      be washed before eating, drinking or smoking and immediately after 
      handling the compound. 

      Technical d-phenothrin and its formulations (other than pressurized
      products):  Empty containers should be decontaminated (See Section 
      4.3), but decontaminated containers must not be used for 
      transportation or storage of food or feed stuffs.  Containers which
      are not decontaminated should be burned or crushed and buried below
      topsoil.  Extreme care must be taken to ensure that the disposal site
      will not cause subsequent contamination of water sources. 
      Pressurized products must be disposed of according to manufacturers'
      instructions and the containers must never be heated or punctured. 


      Formulations in category 4:  Persons under medication with
      neuroactive drugs should avoid contact with d-phenothrin.  
      Consideration should be given to the workers' ability to comprehend 
      and follow instructions.  Workers should be trained in techniques to 
      avoid contact with the formulations. 

      Formulations in category 5:  A warning to workers to avoid contact
      is essential.


      All formulations:  Pilots and loaders should have specialized
      training in application methods and in the recognition of early 
      symptoms of pesticide poisoning.  A suitable respirator should be 
      worn in addition to overalls and impermeable gloves.  Flagmen should 
      wear impermeable gloves and boots, overalls and a broad brimmed hat 
      and should be located well away from the dropping zone. 


      Formulations in category 4 - Minimum cautionary statement:  d-
      Phenothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which may be 
      poisonous following ingestion, skin contact or inhalation of fogs, 
      dusts or mists.  These formulations may be irritating to the skin and 
      eyes.  Avoid skin contact;  wear protective overalls, impermeable 
      gloves and eye protection while handling concentrate.  Keep the 
      material out of reach of children and well away from food and feed 
      stuffs. If poisoning occurs call a physician. 

      Formulations in category 5 - Minimum cautionary statement:  This
      formulation contains phenothrin and is poisonous if swallowed.  It 
      may be absorbed from the skin or following inhalation of dusts, mists 
      or fogs.  Keep this product out of the reach of children and well 
      away from food and feed stuffs.  Wash thoroughly after use. 


      Maximum residue limits have been established by the FAO/WHO Joint 
      Meeting on Pesticide Residues.  There are eight Codex Committees 
      MRLs.  The Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues has estimated 
      the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) to be 0.07 mg/kg body weight. 



4.1.1   General:  d-Phenothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid
      which may elicit an effect on nerve function when administered at 
      high doses to animals.  It may be absorbed from the gastrointestinal
      tract or from intact skin.  Absorption from the lungs may occur 
      following exposure to dusts, aerosol, mists or fogs formulations. 

4.1.2  Manufacture and formulation - TLV:  
      No published information available.  Closed systems and forced 
      ventilation should be used to reduce the exposure of workers to
      d-phenothrin. Protective clothing (see Section 4.1.3) should be worn. 

4.1.3 Mixers and applicators:  Workers should wear
      impermeable gloves and boots, clean overalls and eye protection.  A
      respirator should additionally be worn during mixing operations and 
      when applying aerosol, mist, dust or fog formulations.  Mixing, if 
      not mechanical, should always be carried out with a paddle of 
      appropriate length.  Avoid contact with the mouth, skin and eyes.
      Before eating, drinking, or smoking, the face, hands and exposed skin
      should be thoroughly washed. 

4.1.4  Other associated workers:  Persons associated
      with the application of d-phenothrin should observe the precautions 
      described above (see sections 3.6 and 4.1.3). 

4.1.5  Other populations likely to be affected:  
      The domestic and public health usage of d-phenothrin will expose
      persons other than those associated with agricultural practices.
      Careful attention to the manufacturers' instructions and the low
      concentrations of d-phenothrin in many formulations should ensure
      that this usage dose not expose the public to hazardous amounts of

      Good agricultural practices should ensure that the general public are 
      not exposed to hazardous amounts of d-phenothrin following commercial 


      Entry of unprotected persons into enclosed areas treated with 
      aerosol, mist or fog formulations should be prevented until the area 
      has been thoroughly ventilated.  

      Care must be taken during decontamination procedures to ensure that 
      water sources are not contaminated.  Impermeable gloves and eye 
      protection should be worn.  Residues in containers should be emptied 
      in a diluted form into a dry pit deeper than 0.5 m.  Dispose of 
      pressurized products according to manufacturers' recommendations.  
      These containers should not be punctured, heated or burned.  For 
      other products, the empty container may be decontaminated by 
      scrubbing with water and detergent followed by soaking overnight with 
      5% sodium hydroxide solution. Decontaminated containers must not be 
      used for the transportation or storage of food or drink. Containers 
      which are not decontaminated should be burned or crushed and buried 
      below topsoil. 

      Spillage of liquid formulations should be covered with absorbent 
      material.  This material, or spillage of dry formulations, should be 
      collected and burned or buried in a deep dry pit.  Residual 
      contamination should be removed from the spillage site by washing 
      with water and detergent. 


4.4.1  Early symptoms of poisoning:  No reported 
      incidences.  Unless exposure to d-phenothrin has been exceptionally
      high, the symptoms of over-exposure may be due to the accompanying 
      chemicals in the formulation.  Symptoms may include headache, nausea
      and vomiting. 

4.4.2  Treatment before person is seen by physician, if these
symptoms appear following exposure:
      The person should stop work immediately, remove contaminated clothing
      and wash the affected skin area.  If the formulation has entered the
      eyes they should be flushed with clean water.  The majority of 
      formulations contain hydrocarbon solvents or oils.  Vomiting should 
      not be induced unless it can be definitely determined that all of the
      following apply:  that the formulation was free of solvents and oil;
      that large amounts of the formulation have been ingested;  that the
      patient is fully conscious.  In all cases, keep the patient calm and
      obtain immediate medical help. 



5.1.1  General information:  d-Phenothrin is a synthetic 
      pyrethroid insecticide of low mammalian toxicity.  It may be absorbed
      from the gastrointestinal tract;  by inhalation of dusts, mists or
      fogs or through intact skin.  d-Phenothrin is rapidly metabolized to 
      hydrolysis and oxidation products, which are rapidly excreted in the
      urine and faeces. 

5.1.2  Symptoms and signs:  No published information
      available on the acute toxic effects of d-phenothrin in humans. 
      Accompanying chemicals in the formulation may elicit symptoms before
      those observed from d-phenothrin exposure.  Early symptoms may
      include headache, nausea and vomiting. 

5.1.3  Laboratory:  There are no simple methods for 
      determining d-phenothrin in body fluids. The metabolism is rapid and
      there are numerous excretory products.  The proportion of each 
      metabolite may not be constant in all types of exposure and cannot
      therefore be used as a quantitative measure of exposure.  Some
      urinary metabolites may not be specific to d-phenothrin. 

5.1.4  Treatment:  Treatment is symptomatic.  Wash 
      contaminated skin with soap and water. Wash contaminated eyes with
      copious amounts of water.  Ingestion of a small amount 
      (< 5 mg/kg b.w.) of d-phenothrin should be treated with a large dose
      of activated charcoal followed by sodium or magnesium sulfate 
      (0.25 g/kg b.w.) in water. 

      Following ingestion of larger quantities of d-phenothrin, vomiting 
      should be induced if the patient is fully conscious.  Care must be 
      taken however to avoid pulmonary complications from the accompanying 
      solvents or oils.  Subsequent administration of activated charcoal 
      may limit absorption of remaining d-phenothrin. 

5.1.5  Prognosis:  There are no published data 
      available.  Based on animal experiments it is expected that any
      effects should be reversible. 

5.1.6  References to previously reported cases:  
      No published information available.



5.3.1  Detection and assay of compound and residues:

      Papadopoulou-Mourkidou E, Iwata Y, Gunther FA (1984), J Agric Food 
      Chem 32: 800-805.

      Sakaue S, Kitajima M, Horiba M, Yamamoto S (1981), Agric Biol Chem 
      45(5): 1135-1140.

5.3.2  Other tests in case of poisoning:  None.


1.    WHO (1990), Environmental Health Criteria 96;  d-Phenothrin;  Geneva, 
      World Health Organization, 64 pp. 

2.    WHO (1989), Health and Safety Guide 32;  d-Phenothrin;  Geneva, World 
      Health Organization, 28 pp. 

3.    FAO/WHO (1980) Pesticide Residues in Food 1988, Evaluations 1988, 
      Part II - Toxicology, FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 93/2, 
      Rome, 1989. 

4.    The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium (9th edition 1991), 
      Worthing, C.R. and Hance, eds., British Crop Protection Council, 20 
      Bridport Road, Thornton Heath, CR4 7QG, United Kingdom. 

5.    WHO (1991), Fourteenth Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector 
      Biology and Control, WHO Technical Report Series No. 813, Safe Use of 
      Pesticides;  Geneva, World Health Organization, 27 pp.  

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